Mainly Semantic but can be visual and auditory Key Studies Glanzer and Cunitz showed that when participants are presented with a list of words, they tend to remember the first few and last few words and are more likely to forget those in the middle of the list, i. Words early on in the list were put into long term memory primacy effect because the person has time to rehearse the word, and words from the end went into short term memory recency effect.
Describe and Discuss the Multi Store Model for memory views Memory is essential for everyday functioning and can be described as the retention of learning and experience. There are three stages of the way we process things into our memory: Encoding transform incoming information into a form that can be stored into memory.
Describe evaluate multi store model memory holds the information in the memory until it is needed, where retrieval gets it out in order for it to be used. According to the multi store model for memory, memory is divided into three sections, sensory, short term and long term.
The function of sensory memory is retaining information long enough to decide whether or not it is worthy of further processing. Information in this memory is only stored for up to one or two seconds.
Information in the short term memory can be held visually, acoustically and semantically, there is evidence for this however the main encoding system for short term is acoustically.
The digit span test measures the capacity of the short term memory and children who struggle to read and write usually score very low on digit span tests.
Information, when rehearsed, can be kept in the short term memory for more than 30 seconds when verbally recalling in the rehearsal loop. Items that are unrehearsed get forgotten through displacement.
The duration of the short term memory was measured using the Brown-Peterson technique. Participants were given trigrams which they had to recall after varying amounts of time from seconds.
They had to then do an interference task to prevent the participants from rehearsing. The long term memory differs from that of the short term as it has unlimited capacity.
Atkinson and Shiffrin claimed that forgetting in the long term memory occurs due to confusion between similar long term memories and not being able to find the appropriate memory trace.
Encoding in the long term memory appears to be semantic and the duration of long term memory is a lifetime.
The primacy and recency effect supports the multi store model for memory because it argues the fact that short term and long term memory are two separate stores in memory. The results were the words from the beginning of the list primacy and words from the end of the list recency were remembered.
However the words in the middle Asymptotes were usually forgotten. Words early in the list were stored in long term memory because the person had time to rehearse the word and the words at the end of the list were still fresh in the short term memory so they were easily recalled.
Although this study supports the model as it shows that two separate stores are used in recalling the words, the study does lack ecological validity as it is not an everyday life experience to recall words. The study of HM supports the model because it shows that the long term and short term memories are two distinct stores.
After having his hippocampus accidently removed due to surgery for epilepsy, his short term memory remained intact. Despite being able to remember people he had known long ago, new people he had encountered were like strangers to him.
There are specific deficits in which some abilities, such as learning new information are impaired whilst others like language are quite normal.
Evidence against the model is the idea of flashbulb memories. It contradicts the multi store model as information appears to have gotten into the long term memory without having to be rehearsed.
Indeed in everyday life we rarely ever rehearse information yet we have little problem in storing huge amounts of it so this idea criticises the idea of rehearsal. Individuals can have significant occurrences happen to them in their lifetime that only happen once ad they will remember these memories without the need to rehearse them.
Many of the studies that were conducted in order to investigate the idea of the multi store model for memory were criticised for lacking in ecological validity. Many of the studies supporting the model used laboratory experiments, for example the study of Murdock on the primacy and recency effect and the study of the digit span capacity.
They can therefore be criticised in terms of ecological validity and demand characteristics as it was evident that participants were being involved in an experiment so therefore could have guessed the aim and it was also artificial as it is not an everyday life occurrence to remember digits in that context.
These experiments tell us very little on how memory works in real life. The study of KF also criticises the model because KFs visual short term memory remained undamaged after brain damage due to a motorbike accident and KF could also store long term memories without them needing to pass through his damaged long term memory.
This criticises the model in two ways: They will forget all material and are unable to transfer information from their short term memories into their long term memories.The multi-store model of memory is an theoretical explanation of how memory processes work. It was the first extensively accepted model of how memory works, it is however not the definitive explanation of memory.4/4(1).
Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12) Atkinson and Shiffrin's multi-store model of memory is a structural model and makes a distinction between the separate stores of sensory, short-term and long-term memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin suggested that memory was comprised of three separate stores – the Sensory Memory store, the Short-term Memory store, and the Long-term Memory store -?Describe and evaluate the multi store memory model Essay introduction.
Information from all around us enters the through the sensory memory and encoded through one. Multi Store Model of Memory Saul McLeod, published The multistore model of memory (also known as the modal model) was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin () and is a structural caninariojana.com: Saul Mcleod.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. 6 AO1 marks can easily be obtained by describing the model in quite simple terms. A drawing is perfectly acceptable and should be accompanied by a description of how information flows through the model and what happens to it.
Describe and Discuss the Multi Store Model for memory views Memory is essential for everyday functioning and can be described as the .