Most people smoke marijuana via a pipe bowlwater pipe bong, bubbler, or hookahcigarettes jointsor out of hollowed-out cigars blunts. Marijuana can also be ingested in solid form by mixing it into food.
The Adverse Effects of Marijuana for healthcare professionals Introduction Before reviewing the health effects of marijuana, a few points of clarification are indicated: First, to talk about the health effects of "marijuana" is actually to talk about a wide range of compounds typically found in the cannabis plant.
While the prominent role of THC in producing marijuana intoxication makes it the most frequently discussed compound, in fact it is only one of a wide range of compounds found in marijuana that have an important impact on health. A number of factors determine what is ingested when a person uses marijuana.
These include variations in plant strain, cultivation technique, mode of harvest, and route of ingestion. Second, a differentiation will be made between the acute and chronic effects of marijuana. Most users are familiar with the acute intoxication caused by marijuana.
However, subtle effects may go un-noticed in the short term, only becoming detectable cumulatively with chronic use. Third, this discussion will separately address the impact of marijuana on physical health, mental health, perinatal health, and brain function. Scientific studies have tended to investigate these areas independently.
Within the human body, however, these areas are inextricably bound, each having important bi-directional effects on the other. Brain Function Short Term Effects on Cognition Marijuana intoxication is the result of a number of brain changes that occur when marijuana is used.
These include alterations in short-term memory, sense of time, sensory perception, attention span, problem solving, verbal fluency, reaction time, and psychomotor control Iversen Some users report positive feelings such as mild euphoria and relaxation, while others, particularly naive users, report anxiety, paranoia, and panic reactions Hall and Degenhardt The short term effects of marijuana last approximately hours, depending on potency of the marijuana, the route of administration, and the tolerance of the user.
While frequent users develop tolerance to many of marijuana's effects, tolerance is never complete; even users who do not appear or feel intoxicated continue to manifest impairments under testing Bolla, Brown et al. A special note of caution is warranted with regards to marijuana and driving.
Many users justified their ability to drive by comparing the effects of marijuana to the effects of alcohol. Marijuana does cause less dramatic impairment than alcohol intoxication, but it has nonetheless been associated with a fold increase in accidents on the road Drummer, Gerostamoulos et al.
An association has been found between blood THC levels and likelihood of culpability in fatal traffic accidents involving marijuana users Grotenhermen, Leson et al. The increase in accidents is likely related to the effects of marijuana on attention, hand-eye coordination, tracking behavior and reaction time Ramaekers, Berghaus et al.
Even individuals with tolerance, who may not show obvious deficits in these areas, manifest impairment when there is a need to adaptively respond to sudden unexpected emergencies Liguori, Gatto et al. The combination of alcohol and marijuana produces levels of impairment greater than their independent sum, and this too has been demonstrated among experienced users with high levels of tolerance Bramness, Khiabani et al.
Long Term Effects on Cognition While there is no question that marijuana causes short-term impairments in brain function, the degree to which these impairments are reversible with chronic use is less clear. Some studies have shown that brain function recovers over time, while others demonstrate persistence of subtle, but important, impairments.
How is it possible to reconcile the different findings from different studies? These inconsistencies often appear to reflect differences in the sensitivity with which "impairment" is measured. By and large, most of the prominent brain effects of marijuana are short term and do in fact reverse when marijuana is discontinued.
However, there is increasing evidence that subtle effects, such as slowed information processing, may actually persist long after discontinuation. These effects are difficult to detect because they may only become apparent in the setting of highly complex, demanding brain functions Solowij, Stephens et al.
The psychoactive effects of marijuana are thought to be predominantly mediated by THC stimulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors.
Acute and chronic marijuana use cause changes in brain function, as demonstrated by measures of cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, electrophysiology, and structural anatomy Schweinsburg, Brown et al.
Functional imaging studies have shown less activity in brain regions involved in memory and attention in chronic marijuana users than in non-users, even after 28 days of abstinence Block, O'Leary et al.
Increasing endogenous cannabinoid activity by administering URB to block anandamide metabolism in adolescent rats produces long-lasting decreases in CB1 binding in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and hippocampus Marco, Rubino et al.
Cannabinoid receptors are most prevalent in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
These brain regions undergo prominent developmental changes throughout childhood and adolescence, and thus may be particularly susceptible to the adverse cognitive effects of marijuana.
Adolescent humans using marijuana have been found to have increased volumes in the cerebellum, possibly from failure to prune synapses effectively Medina, Nagel et al. These adolescent marijuana users also show increased brain processing effort on fMRI during an inhibition task in the presence of similar task performance, even after 28 days of abstinence Tapert, Schweinsburg et al.
Taken together, there is compelling evidence that chronic increases in stimulation of the brain's cannabinoid system can lead to morphologic and physiologic changes especially during adolescence Schweinsburg, Brown et al. Physical Health Lungs Smoked marijuana irritates the delicate lining of the respiratory tract and causes damage to the cells lining the bronchial passages.Cannabis plants produce a second important substance called cannabidiol, or CBD.
The compound appears to reduce the risk of psychotic disorders, by counteracting the effects of THC. Cannabis and Health Using cannabis is a personal choice, but it can have short- and long-term effects on your health. Canna-bis can affect your thinking, physical co-ordination and control, and increase your risk of accidents, injuries, reproductive issues and mental health problems, including dependence.
Smoking cannabis can increase your chances of having lung problems. The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for.
The DSM-5 also notes that the local ease of access to cannabis is a risk factor, (American Psychiatric Association, ) for individuals who are inclined to use cannabis.
A drug-tolerant culture as a risk factor for use, as conformity to social norms has been established as a powerful influence on behavior.
15 Surprising Side Effects Of Smoking Weed. By Josh DuBose Published on October 28, EZ review - just click a star (DSM). Millions of people meet the medical criteria for marijuana addiction and need treatment.
Part of the criteria is what is known as “withdrawal”, the psychological and physical manifestations of stopping use. In spite of numerous years of being told that there are no physiological effects from marijuana addiction, many of our recovering members have had definite withdrawal symptoms.
Whether the causes are physical or psychological, the results are physical.