The invention of the printing press and its effects Flowchart Covered in multimedia lecture Introduction At the height of the Hussite crisis in the early 's, when the authorities ordered manuscripts of heretical writings burned, people on both sides realized quite well the significance of that act. Two hundred handwritten manuscripts would be hard to replace. Not only would it be a time consuming job, but also trained scribes would be hard to find.
At Scientific revolution and how it effects beginning came the important books of Copernicus in astronomy and Vesalius in anatomy, both published in In the appearance of Newton's Principia provided a sort of climax for previous achievements in astronomy and physics and became the basis for future developments in those fields.
Although there had been much work done in antiquity and in the Middle Ages to prepare the way for these achievements, the quality and impact of scientific discovery in Europe in this period exceeds anything ever done in any part of the world.
Consequently, modern European and western civilization alone can, in fact, be called a scientific civilization.
That is to say, in no other time or place outside of the modern western world has natural science had so profound and pervasive an impact on the way people live and think.
We can even divide the history of western civilization into a prescientific and a scientific phase.
If we accept this system of periodization, then the scientific revolution marks the point at which the change took place. The effects of modern science have manifested themselves in various ways. In an obvious sense, the results of scientific knowledge applied in the form of technology are everywhere evident today.
Over the years they have revolutionized communication and transportation and increased beyond calculation the power and wealth available to society and those who control and experience its benefits.
In the present-day forms of atomic energy and computers, applied science promises or threatens further changes, which may be as far beyond our comprehension as the airplane and television would have been to the contemporaries of Luther, Erasmus, and Elizabeth I.
But these amazing developments do not encompass all the effects of science on the modern consciousness. More subtle, but probably no less important, has been the formation of a particular view of the nature of reality. We look at the world and our place in it in a different way than was possible in the prescientific period.
This world view has superseded the one described in this book. It is no doubt more "correct" than the older one; that is, it can be shown to correspond more closely with observable and verifiable facts. For example, it is no longer possible to maintain that the sun revolves about a motionless earth, or that there are four terrestrial elements: On the other hand, two words of caution may be ventured here.
First of all, the so-called scientific view of the nature of things is not a complete view. It can account for only those aspects of nature that are accessible to scientific methods of observation and explanation.
It is of course possible and many have drawn this conclusion to maintain that nothing is "real" or "true" except what is scientifically verifiable, and that whatever else we seem to see, know, or experience is illusory or imaginary.
A more balanced outlook might be that not all truths are "scientific" truths, in the usual sense, and that there are many roads to truth. In the words of Blaise Pascal 62who among other things made distinguished contributions to science, "The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know.
It may to some extent rest on unproved and unprovable assumptions, like the world view that it superseded.
For this, some of the scientists themselves must share part of the responsibility. Burtt, author of The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science, has pointed out, these scientists were often better scientists than philosophers, but their scientific prestige gave their philosophical views an undeserved authority.
These views have affected the course of modern thought, but they may also in the process have misled it somewhat. This chapter will endeavor to explain to some extent how this happened. Modern science has tended to ask of nature the question how, where the scholars of the Middle Ages asked why.
For medieval thinkers it was important to know the "final cause" of a thing, that is, the purpose for which it exists; for modern science, attention has been shifted to an attempt to observe and describe its behavior, and to seek not final causes but rather physical causes.
Francis Bacon distinguished the two kinds of causes in his Advancement of Learning Second Book, VII, 7 by declaring that both causes are true, but one declares an intention, the other a consequence.
Medieval philosophers were more interested in intentions; modern scientists are interested in consequences. In modern science, accordingly, there has been an insistence on exact observation. No explanation of a fact or event in nature has been acceptable unless it has taken into account all of the observed data.
The explanation that has accounted most simply for all the observed facts has been accepted as true.
|history social science content standards:||Included are a list of Galileo Project texts, an overview of the scientific community in the 16th and 17th centuries, Internet resources, a glossary, a bibliography, maps, a timeline, and even college projects.|
Conceivably, some other type of explanation may be better from some points of view; in modern times, only the scientific type has been acceptable. Some of the great scientists of the sixteenth century looked to mathematics as the key to the secrets of nature.
This meant that nature came to be interpreted in terms of quantities rather than qualities. What lay outside the field in which mathematics can operate came to seem, in a word that was widely used "secondary," irrelevant, even unreal.
Thus we can see that the scientific revolution had important metaphysical implications that is, it came to influence man's conception of the nature and constitution of basic reality. The basic outlines of this picture have already been referred to.
It may be added that the known planets were Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, to which the sun and moon were added because they were both thought to revolve around the earth. All these planets moved around the earth once every twenty-four hours, and described an annual motion through the heavens, each then returning to its original place.
Beyond the planets lay the stars, which because of their great distance from the earth, were not observed to make an annual motion, but only to circle the earth daily.The question “What were the scientific revolution's effects and cause?” encompass a massive bodies of knowledge in theoretical, historical, philosophical fields.
A good answer requires finding out what you hope to accomplish with such an answer. Effects of the Scientific Revolution One of the direct influences of the Scientific Revolution was the development of industrial machines, a process that began in this time period.
The Scientific Revolution - There were three major revolutions at work during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the scientific revolution, the enlightenment revolution and the political revolution. Effects of the Scientific Revolution. Sometimes small events can have a big impact in unexpected places.
For example, when the Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming began working on the chemistry.
When the Scientific Revolution came across the West it made changes and affected Europe as a whole, socially, intellectually, and religiously. Among all the other events that took place from , one of the largest in this time period is the Scientific Revolution.
Identify discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution.
Sep 18, · From human development, health and life longevity, to social improvements and the impact on natural resources, public health, energy usage and sanitation, the effects were profound. It wasn’t that the Industrial Revolution became a stalwart juggernaut overnight. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Second Edition, Enlarged Thomas S. Kuhn VOLUMES I AND II • FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNITY OF SCIENCE VOLUME II • NUMBER 2. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science Editor-in-Chief Otto Neurath Associate Editors Rudolf Carnap Charles Morris Foundations of the Unity of Science. The Scientific Revolution, championed by Copernicus, the Polish mathematician and astronomer born in , changed the concept of the relationship between Man and Nature.
Describe the effects of those discoveries. Identify discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution. Describe the effects of those discoveries. Menu. Social Studies. Social Studies Home Accessible Planning ELA.